HTML5 offers over a dozen new input types, along with several fresh . Used together, they make web forms far more powerful and flexible, while eliminating or reducing much of the previous need for and to validate user data. This article focuses on attributes that can be added to every form: required, placeholder and autofocus.

Placeholder text

The first is a feature that has been a feature of forms for some time, albeit one created via JavaScript: placeholder text within an <input>.

<input type="text" name="firstname" id="firstname" placeholder="Enter your first name here">

Note that a <label> tag should still be present: most screen readers for the blind do not yet read placeholder text. The content of the <label> element says what the input is for; the placeholder text is simply a hint or guide. So the entire code would be:

<label for="firstname" accesskey="f">First name</label>
<input type="text" name="firstname" id="firstname" placeholder="Enter your first name here">

placeholder replaces previous techniques that have used a combination of CSS and/or JavaScript to create the same effect. You can style the placeholder text in some, but not all, browsers, using proprietary CSS:

	input:-moz-placeholder { 
		color: #999;

A few reminders:

  • Never use placeholder as a substitute for <label>
  • Always make the placeholder text as generic as possible, otherwise it is likely that users may assume that the form has already been filled out for them.


We have always been able to control the order of focus in a form with the tab index attribute, but outside of JavaScript there was no way to make a particular field active by default, with the cursor inside it… and even the JavaScript solutions were a little tacky and prone to error. Now we can use the following:

<input type="text" name="firstname" id="firstname" autofocus>

Please be careful with this: “stealing focus” from users is, generally speaking, a poor interface decision.


Up until now there has been no way in HTML to insist that certain fields be filled out before the user can submit a form. That has been one of the primary purposes of form validation with PHP and/or JavaScript. HTML5 can now build that insistence into a form:

<form action="formhandler.php">
	<label for="firstname" accesskey="f">First name</label>
	<input type="text" name="firstname" id="firstname" required>
	<label for="lastname" accesskey="l">Last name</label>
	<input type="text" name="lastname" id="lastname">
	<input type="submit">

In Firefox, pressing the submit button without entering information into the first field will result in the browser displaying the following:HTML5 required field

required most often is applied with the pattern attribute, which uses regular expressions to validate user data. The error message associated with an invalid input can be customised with CSS, JavaScript, using the title attribute, or a combination of all three.